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The video assistant referee (VAR) trial in competitive football has faced its first major controversy. And now the question - How does the VAR work in football match?

The judgment not to upend Willian's yellow card for diving and give a penalty to Chelsea in their FA Cup
third-round replay on 17TH January, 2018 against Norwich on Wednesday, led to Match of the Day analyst Alan Shearer calling the system a mess.

Just 24 hours earlier,the first VAR goal had been given - when Leicester's Kelechi Iheanacho's
offside strike was reversed 67 seconds after initially being ruled out in their
FA Cup win over Fleetwood. Next, the response was generally positive.

What happened with the Willian incident?

The answer is the phrase plain and noticeable mistake - VAR is only used to overturn obvious errors with goals, penalties, red cards andmistaken identities.

Willian seemed to be jammedin the area by Norwich defender Timm Klose. Referee Graham Scott issued a card
to the Brazilian for a dive.

inside a Londonstudio, referee Mike Jones was in position as the VAR to revise all the angles accessible
to him - and determined there was no apparent and observable mistake made in disallowing
the penalty.

Had Jones thoughtthere was one, he could have reversed the verdict himself or asked Scott to
study a pitch-side monitor and make the final decision.

Shearer said: -That's why it's all wrong. It's someoneelse's opinion. Use VAR for a subject of fact, not for views.

BBC Sport recognizesthat Jones would have reversed the verdict, or counseled referee Graham Scott
to glance at the occurrence on the pitch-side monitor, had he seen the same
super slow-motion angle that TV viewers saw - presenting the contact.

For honesty purposes,the VAR does not see the broadcast output, or listen to commentary. It is
understood Mike Jones viewed the incident 13 times, in both real time and slow
motion, and was contented with the on-field verdict, but did not view the super
slow-motion option, which showed the contact.

So what have we observed?

§ Individual mistake andbias. Dispute in football cannotstop. With penalties in exacting, it is still down to a referee's - and a VAR's
- verdict.

§ Repeat. The VAR and referees are anticipated to viewreplays in real-time - which is what Jones did on the Willian incident - but
are allowed to use slow-motion must they wish, mainly with handball incidents.

§ Communication. In cooperation Referee and the VAR can begina conversation. It's not a constant dialogue during a game, but there are usual

§ Multitude. There is lingering problems about displaying to fans in the stadium what is happening. For instance, if the Willian dive was reversed and a penalty given, it is not obvioushow a referee would communicate that his yellow card for diving had been withdrawn.

Therefore when is VAR used?

The match was the fourth match in England in which the technology was tested and sends the first flash
of real hullabaloo.

Here's the fundamentalinformation.

Where a VAR appraisalis used, it will usually be activated during breaks in play and restricted to
four types of match-changing occasions:

§ Goals

§ Penalties

§ Straight red cards

§ Mistaken identity

It should slash out errors,such as the wrong flag raised following Iheanacho's finish in his side’s 2-0
victory over Fleetwood.

How do we recognize it's being used?

There are three ways.

A speech in the earpiece

This was the procedure exploited by referee Jonathan Moss in Tuesday's FA Cup tie, where Iheanacho was
given his goal after it had originally been ruled out.

Moss had also temporarilytalked to the video official when Iheanacho had an earlier goal ruled out
because the ball had traversed the byline before Demarai Gray crossed it and
when Leicester's Vicente Iborra was drawn back in the box, but they resolved
not to givea penalty.

In Brighton's FA Cupwin over Crystal Palace on Monday, referee Andre Marriner and the VAR Neil
Swarbrick really sounded out over 11 verdicts, including Glenn Murray’s winner.
No mistakes were made so there was no need to stop the game and look at the

This also occured onfour incidents in Chelsea and Arsenal’s 0-0 draw in Wednesday's Carabao
Cup semi-final first leg.

Referee MartinAtkinson delayed the restart of play - finger to his ear - while listening to
his VAR Swarbrick over two potential red card confrontations and two Chelsea
penalty calls, but he was fulfilled enough with the facts communicated to him
not to award a spot-kick.

Though, referees chiefMike Riley told BBC Radio 5 live that fans in the stadium may fight back
to know what was going on and they will appraise how to relay what is occurring.

VAR chooses

This could have occuredwhen Willian went down under Klose's test but hasn't occured yet in any of the
trial games. When an actual video review process is appointeds, fans will see
the referee draw a rectangle with his arms to imitate a TV screen.

Moreover the refereeor the VAR can choose whether an incident needs to be investigated.

If the verdict is obviousand a player has scored a goal from an offside position, for instance, the VAR
will inform the referee there has been a mistake which does not need further appraisal.
The referee will then make the TV screen signal and alter the initial verdict.

On-field evaluation

We are still waitingfor one of these.

As above, but in conditionsthat are less understandable, the VAR will advise the referee to look at the
pitch-side monitor for what is called an on-field review.

Following their evaluation,the referee will make a TV screen signal and converse the ultimate verdict.

Crowds in the stadiumwill not be capable to view replay pictures, but supporters watching at home
will see the same camera angles as the referees, so they should at least be
able to get an idea of which way the verdict is going.

What time is it not used?

§ Second yellow cards

§ Referees cannot say I'm not sure, I'll look ata replay - they have to make a decision and if it's a clear and obvious mistake,
they'll be told by the VAR

So what have we understood from the trials?

Some managers havebeen happy.

Leicester boss Claude Puel told BBC Radio 5 live after their winover Fleetwood: The time was not so long to watch the video and take the verdict.
This evening I like the technology.

Crystal Palace manager Roy Hodgson commended the officials and the system after his side's loss to Brighton.

But Antonio Conte called on referees to take more time in arrivingat their decision after the Willian controversy in his side's shootout win over

If we want to try to utilizethis new system, it is vital for the referee to wait, particularly in this
incident that is not so clear - said Conte.

BBC Radio 5 livepundit Phil Neville saidhe was puzzled by the occurrence, while Match of the Day analyst Alan Shearer said: We all feel it is a clear and noticeablepenalty - and to make it poor, the referee books Willian for diving. mess.

Players will still meet the referee, as Palace did at full-time in the game at the Amex Stadium. But
they should be careful - an over- excited request for a VAR interference will
be met with the same penalty as signaling the imaginary red card.

Managers that break the mark with VAR appeals on the touchline, or invade on the area where the
referee is reviewing footage, will be sent off.

Arsenal boss Arsene Wenger has expressed his concern with the amount of time taken to arrive at verdicts, while Conte also thinks more added time in games will be needed.

He said: As you start to use VAR, you then have to add more extra time. When there are uncertainties about two incidents in the game, then the extra time is seven, eight or nine

What ls after that?

VAR can only be used at Premier League stadiums where there is a straight link back to the Premier
League studios west of London - where the VAR has contact to between 12 and 15
camera angles, including four cameras in each goal.

It will be used in thesecond leg of Chelsea v Arsenal and applied in every round of the FA Cup and
some further replays, based on broadcaster TV picks and whether the host for
each tie is in the Premier League.

How regularly will it be used?

It only took 40minutes of Serie A's opening game for VAR technology to be used for the first
time when it was initiated at the start of this season in Italy.

But since then it has developedand is now commonly used about once in three or four matches, according to
former referee David Elleray, the head of refereeing for International Football
Association Board.

The expertise has alsobeen used in Germany's Bundesliga and in MLS in the United States, and was also
obtainable for England's two goalless friendlies with Germany and Brazil last
November, which passed without incident.

Has there been disagreement to VAR?

Juventus manager Massimiliano Allegri has spoken his concerns over stoppages as a result of VAR referrals, complaining the game was turning into baseball.

Fleetwood boss Uwe Rosler is from Germany, whose top flight haveused VAR all season. He said: Commonly in Germany there is divided views as
it's been tried this season. For me, some situations you can't be 100% on VAR -
is the verdict right or wrong?

My view is don't complicate the game - it's stunning as it is. People try to make it dissimilar
for some reason. I don't like it, it disrupts the flow. Today we were on the
wrong side but in general I don't like it.

According to German magazine Kicker, 47% of players wanted to abolish VAR in the Bundesliga.

As for those declaringit hands an unfair gain to teams who profit from its use, the Football
Association says it is a level playing field for both teams, whether the
technology is accessible or not, and point to the fact that a VAR evaluation is
not often used.